KnowitAll Project- Wallace and Hobbs #1

by Joe Archive on January 16, 2008

Wallace and Hobbs, 1977br /br /1.1 Introduction (span style=”font-style: italic;”I’m going to start doing this by section with meta comments in italics/spanspan style=”font-style: italic;”, but that may evolve as I go/span)br /br /Meteorology, from the Greek meteoros, meaning lofty, and logos, discourse (span style=”font-style: italic;”I had been trying to work out how weather and meteors were linked for ages. Thank you Wallace and Hobbs/span). Concerned with the atmospheric phenomena and their time-dependent behaviour.br /br /Climatology, concerned with the the long-term statistical properties of the atmosphere that constitute the climate (span style=”font-style: italic;”ie mean and variances for atmospheric quantities like sea level presure/span).br /br /1.2 Origin of the Atmosphere.br /Remarkably deficient in noble gases – probably the gaseous components of the early planet escaped shortly after/during formation of the Earth.br /Observed atmosphere appears to be almost entirely the products of volcano out-gassing, chemically and biologically processed into the chemical composition that we are familiar with.br /Atmosphere is not isolated system, interacts with:br /ulli hydrosphere (water on/above the surface)/lilibiosphere (plants and animals)/lililithosphere (the Earth’s crust)/li/ulAtmosphere is very small and light compared to the other components.br /br /1.2.1 Evolution of the hydrospherebr /Volcanic eruptions produce vastly more water than can exist as vapour, so clouds and rain must have formed over the primeval earth, forming bodies of standing water, once the planet was cool enough for them to exist.br /br /97% of the current hydrosphere lies in the oceans., with only 1/1000th of a percent in the atmosphere.br /br /1.2.2 Atmospheric Oxygen and Life (span style=”font-style: italic;”remember that this book is older than I am and I am no biologist, so don’t expect either of us to know wha tthe current thinking on this topic is/span)br /br /Two possible sources of atmospheric oxygen, photo-disassociation of water and photosynthesisbr /br /Presently(span style=”font-style: italic;”?!/span) thought that initial formation of life occurred in an oxygen poor atmosphere roughly 4 billion years ago. It probably occurred in the mid-depths of the early oceans, where there was protection from UV radiation, but still visible light to fuel photosynthesis.br /br /Over time, photosynthesis enriched the atmosphere with oxygen and ozone, promoting growth and reducing the UV threat. Plant life was able to spread upwards and multiply, gaining access to the greater levels of sunlight int he upper oceans, further boosting growth. A bootstrapping process thus lead to life working it’s way upwards, finally emerging onto the land some 400 million years ago.br /br /span style=”font-style: italic;”There, I’ve started. I covered 8 of the least information rich pages. Only 450 to go.br /br //spana href=”http://blog.joeandersen.com/2008/01/knowitall-project-wallace-and-hobbs-2.html”spanNext/span/aspan style=”font-style: italic;”br //span

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